Volume 9

DBPR108, A Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Phase I, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Single and Multiple Doses in Healthy Volunteers

Research Article

1. Abstract
1.1. Aims
DBPR108 is an orally active dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor in animals. The present first-in-human randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study evaluated DBPR108 for safety and tolerability in healthy adult Asian male volunteers.
1.2. Main Methods
DBPR108 were orally given at 25-600 mg as single and multiple once-daily doses for 8 consecutive days. Hospital stays and visits were scheduled for oral ingestion of DBPR108 and physical examinations including vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, and electrocardiograms throughout the study. Blood and urine samples were collected for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measurements, including DPP-4 activities, and active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels.
1.3. Significance
DBPR108 is readily oral absorbable and inhibits the circulating DPP-4 activity in healthy volunteers. DBPR108 is well-tolerated without safety concerns of hypoglycemia or acute pancreatitis. The Phase 1 study results warrant further investigations of DBPR108 for treating T2DM patients.

Partial Splenic Embolization for the Treatment of Thrombocytopenia in Cancer Patients

Review Article

1. Abstract
Thrombocytopenia is a common sequela of chemotherapy treatment of many non-hematologic malignancies. Severe thrombocytopenia may necessitate halting chemotherapy or lead to hemorrhagic complications that impact patient morbidity and mortality. Partial Splenic Embolization (PSE) has been shown to be effective at improving platelet counts in appropriately selected patients and allowing for the resumption of chemotherapy. Many patients develop a sustained response to PSE, while thrombocytopenia recurs in others. Post-embolization syndrome is the most common complication of PSE and is characterized by fever, pain and nausea/vomiting. The incidence of complications increases with the percentage of splenic volume embolized. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature regarding the use of PSE to reduce thrombocytopenia in cancer patients and to highlight techniques and complications.

Management of Hyperacute Rejection during Operation in Living Donor Liver Transplantation – A Case Report

Case Report

1. Abstract
Hyperacute rejection in solid organ transplantation is a catastrophic event and leads to graft failure immediately. It rarely happens in liver transplantation during operation. A 58-year-old male patient had salvage living donor liver transplantation for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. His wife was the donor. All the transplantation procedures were uneventful until bile duct anastomosis was done. The portal vein became tense without obvious thrombus. Portal flow ceased and small bowels were congestive. Hyperacute rejection was the impression and portal flow was diverted into systemic circulation by porto-femoral shunt. Postoperative serum showed positive for anti-donor antibodies. The patient had re-transplantation on next day with a hepatitis B antigen (+) deceased graft. The excised liver graft in the 1st liver transplantation showed multiple focal hemorrhagic necrosis, extensive thrombus in portal vein and positive for C4d. It was a hyperacute rejection and was rare in liver transplantation. Herein, we reported how the patient was rescued during the operation.

Identification of Pyroptosis-Related Subtypes in Liver Cancer, Establishment of Prognostic Models, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment Infiltration

Research Article

1. Abstract
1.1. Objectives: Pyroptosis is a type of programmed cell death that has been discovered and confirmed in recent years, which were characterized by pro-inflammatory and is related to tumor progression, prognosis and treatment response. However, the potential roles of pyroptosis-related genes (PRGs) in the tumor microenvironment (TME) remain unclear. At the same time, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of liver tumorigenesis and predict the response to immunotherapy, our study on the characteristics of multiple PRG-mediated TME cell infiltration may provide important ideas and directions for future research.

Clinical Relevance of Bile Acid and their Conjugates in Health and Disease

Short Communication

1. Short Communication
Bile Acids (BA) are synthesized by the oxidation of cholesterol in the liver and secreted into the duodenum. BAs were circulated from the duodenum back to the liver by enterohepatic recirculation. BAs regulate many physiological functions, including the expression of genes involved cholesterol, glucose, and their homeostasis. BAs have several pathologic effects, including carcinogenicity, liver toxicity and many others.

Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Polyethylene Glycol vs Lactulose in Chronic Constipation: Non Inferiority Study

Research Article

1. Abstract
1.1. Background: Constipation is a common condition. Lactulose & Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) are effective & safe, recommended as first-line medication for Chronic Constipation (CC).
1.2. Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of PEG 3350 versus lactulose in patients with CC.
1.3. Methods: In this single-center, randomised, open label, parallel-group study. Patients with CC (< 3 bowel movements per 7-day period) received either a 17 g of PEG 3350 or 10 g of lactulose daily for 14 days. Primary endpoint was the number of bowel movements per 7-day period.

Pulmonary Pleura Metastasis from Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm with Appendiceal Neuroendocrine Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

Case Report

1. Abstract
Low-grade Mucinous Appendiceal Neoplasm (LAMN) is a rare appendiceal tumor and has low malignant potential. LAMN and Appendiceal Neuroendocrine Tumor (ANET) are the most frequent benign and malignant appendiceal lesions. A collision between LAMN and Appendiceal neuroendocrine tumor (ANET)is an exceedingly rare condition. So far, evaluating the literature, just 10 cases of collision LAMN and ANET have been reported. Here, we report a case of pulmonary pleura metastasis from LAMN with ANET that combined examinations via morphology, immunohistochemistry, and medical history. Our work will help to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of the tumour and avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment.

Upper Limit of Normal Serum Alanine Transaminase ALT and Correlation with Gender and BMI

Research Article

1. Abstract
Alanine transaminase ALT is considered the most specific marker for hepatocellular membrane damage, once asymptomatic ALT elevation may be the only indicator of some liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD which is the most common liver disease in the western world, so it is necessary to define upper limit of normal ULN of ALT accurately to differentiate healthy and asymptomatic patients, many studies were made to evaluate ULN of ALT in different countries, all of which recommended that ULN of ALT should be lower than current reference values with presence of difference between males and females.

Special Presentation of Bronchobiliary Fistula After Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization: A Case Report

Case Report

1. Abstract
Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization (TACE) has been widely adopted for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) treatment. However, it may cause several complications, including biloma formation. And bronchobiliary fistula is a post-TACE complication rarely mentioned before.

Identification of Polyamine Subtypes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Characteristics of their Immune Infiltrates

Research Article

1. Abstract
1.1. Background: Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Due to the poor prognosis of standard treatment, it is urgent to evaluate the immune molecular characteristics and find new HCC immune biomarkers and immunotherapy . The homeostasis of polyamines is closely related to tumor progression and prognosis. The uptake of polyamines by immune cells also leads to a decrease in anti-tumor cytokines and the anti-tumor
ability of immune cells.